This chapter presents SHA's Entrance Standards for commercial and industrial sites. These standards apply to new entrances and the modification of existing entrances.
2.1 Types of Entrances and Their Applications
The following guidelines identify appropriate applications for different types of commercial entrances. Selection of the appropriate type of entrance should be made by considering the function, physical characteristics, and traffic conditions of the state highway.
2.1.2 Commercial Two-Way Entrances
2.1.3 Commercial One-Way Entrances
2.1.4 Commercial Right-In/Right-Out Entrances
2.1.5 Monumental Entrances
2.1.6 Special Entrance Designs – Special design entrances are permitted for instances in which a specialized entrance design may be appropriate to address unusual site-generated traffic or field conditions. All special entrance designs are subject to review and approval by SHA and will not be considered unless need is clearly demonstrated.
2.2 Horizontal Layout
The horizontal layout of entrances shall comply with the following standards:
2.2.2 Angle of Connection
2.2.3 Entrance Intersection Radius and Flare
2.2.4 Traffic Control Islands and Medians
2.3 Vertical Layout
The vertical layout of entrances shall comply with the following standards.
2.3.2 Grade Breaks – The maximum grade break allowed between the state highway pavement and the entrance profile grade is 8%. This applies to normal crowned and superelevated state highway conditions. The use of vertical curves is recommended to provide a smooth transition.
2.3.3 Grading and Drainage Provisions – The profile grade lines and cross sections on the entrances shall be designed to provide a smooth junction and proper drainage. The entrance cross section at the intersection with the road edge shall be controlled by the highway profile grades.
2.3.4 Entrance Profile – Whenever required by SHA, a profile of any entrance proposed for use shall be provided on the plans submitted for review and approval. The existing and proposed profile grades along the centerline of the entrance shall be shown extending from the highway centerline into the site for a distance sufficient to demonstrate compliance. All grades, elevations, offsets, flow lines, grade breaks, and controls shall be clearly labeled and drawn to scale.
2.4 Site Plan Coordination
Various site plan elements can have a substantial effect on the operation of highway access points. Careful attention to these factors reduces vehicular conflicts in the entrance areas.
2.4.2 Setbacks and Building Restrictions – In order for the entrances to operate at maximum efficiency, it is recommended that the minimum desirable building setback line be 30’ from the right-of-way line or limits of dedication. Building setback lines are subject to the regulations of the pertinent local government approving authority.
2.4.3 Pump Island Location – In order for the entrances to operate at maximum efficiency, it is recommended that the roadside face of the pump island of fueling stations be set a minimum of 12’, preferably 15’, from the property line. Pump setback lines are subject to the regulations of the pertinent local government approving authority.
2.4.4 Connection Depth/Throat Length – Throat length is measured from the proposed edge of the highway to the first on-site intersection or vehicular conflict point. The edge of the highway shall be determined based on the ultimate highway typical section, where future widening is anticipated.
Table 2.4.4 Minimum Throat Length for Commercial/Industrial Entrances
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