This Chapter presents SHA's Standards for the design of entrances that are to provide access for commercial and industrial sites. These standards apply to new entrances and the modification of existing access when required by SHA.
The following guidelines identify appropriate applications for different types of commercial entrances. Selection of the appropriate type of entrance should be made by considering the function, physical characteristics, and traffic conditions of the State highway. In addition, the function of the requested access and the local land use and development setting must be considered. For example, certain types of entrances are only appropriate along lower-speed highways in highly urbanized settings where there are many access points allowed. In any case, engineering judgement shall be used to select the appropriate type of entrance.
A. Description. Depressed curb entrances offer the most compact entrance layout and accommodate two-way movements. Their integral flared sides are equivalent to approximately a 5’ radius return. This limits the speed of vehicles turning into or out from the entrance. The merits of this inherent speed control feature, particularly for vehicles turning across sidewalk areas and entering the site, must be weighed against the effects of greater speed reduction required for vehicles on the highway approaching the entrance to make turns. Also, the need to accommodate vehicle turning movements may result in excessive overall entrance width. Depressed curb entrances provide no directional control. B. Applications.
A. Description. Commercial Two-Way Entrances allow for inbound and outbound movements between curbed sides. The entrances provide no directional control, allowing full movement access. A minimum radius accommodates turning movements more easily than a depressed curb entrance of the same throat width.
A. Description. Commercial One Way Entrances allow for inbound or outbound movement between curbed sides. Depending on the alignment (skew) of the entrance, directional control restricting left turns may be provided by this design.
A. Description. Commercial Right-In/Right-Out Entrances provide separate driveways dedicated to inbound and outbound right-turn movements at a single access point. A raised island separates the movements and, coupled with narrower track widths for the respective movements, provides directional control. The larger curve radii support turning movements within the narrower track.
A Description. Monumental Entrances include a raised median that separates inbound and outbound movements and extends for a considerable distance away from the highway into the site. Multiple lanes inbound and outbound can be accommodated. Monumental Entrances may be designed for full movement, right-in/right-out, or other restricted access.
Maintaining a highway environment characterized by standard entrance designs promotes safety by addressing driver expectancy factors. The use of time-tested and field-proven designs that are suitable for a wide range of applications also helps to avoid excessive maintenance costs. However, there are instances in which a specialized entrance design may be appropriate to address unusual site generated traffic or field conditions. For example, special layout may be required to address traffic that will be exiting the highway at a significant speed, as might be expected where a deceleration lane is not feasible or a free-flow entrance condition is sought. All special entrance designs are subject to review and approval by EAPD and will not be considered unless need is clearly demonstrated.
The vertical layout of entrances shall comply with the following standards.
The profile grades of commercial entrances should be as flat as possible on those sections that are to be used for storage space for stopped vehicles. Grade limitations are as follows:
The maximum grade break allowed between the State highway pavement and the entrance profile grade is 8%. This applies to normal crowned and superelevated State highway conditions. The use of vertical curves is recommended to provide a smooth transition.
The profile grade lines and cross sections on the entrances shall be designed to provide a smooth junction and proper drainage. The profile grade line and cross sections on the entrance shall be designed to provide a smooth junction and proper drainage. The entrance cross section at the intersection with the road edge shall be controlled by the highway profile grades.
Whenever required by EAPD, a profile of any entrance proposed for use shall be provided on the plans submitted for review and approval. The existing and proposed profile grades along the centerline of the entrance shall be shown extending from the highway centerline into the site for a distance sufficient to demonstrate compliance. All grades, elevations, offsets, flow lines, grade breaks, and controls shall be clearly labeled and drawn to scale.
Various site plan elements can have a substantial effect on the operation of highway access points. Careful attention to these factors reduces vehicular conflicts in the entrance areas. This promotes safer traffic conditions for patrons and highway users and enhances the convenience of site ingress and egress.
Entrances onto highways can only function to the degree of efficiency that the interior traffic pattern permits. Therefore, in developing the site plan, every effort should be made to employ accepted traffic engineering principles in designing an interior traffic pattern that supports proper entrance operation without stacking of vehicles onto the highway.
Building Setback. In order that the entrances operate at a maximum efficiency, it is recommended that the minimum desirable building setback line be 30 feet from the right-of-way line or limits of dedication. Building setback lines are subject to the regulations of the pertinent local government approving authority.
In order for the entrances to operate at maximum efficiency, it is recommended that the roadside face of the pump island of fueling stations be set a minimum of l2 feet, preferably l5 feet, from the property line. Pump setback lines are subject to the regulations of the pertinent local government approving authority.
Adequate entrance throat length, coupled with appropriate on-site traffic control, helps to prevent a condition in which vehicles queue back into the State highway at the access point. Throat length is measured from the proposed edge of the highway to the first on-site intersection or vehicular conflict point. The edge of the highway shall be determined based on the ultimate highway typical section, where future widening is anticipated.
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