Indirect and Cumulative Effects (ICE) Analysis

In compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations (40 CFR 1508.25(c)), the indirect and cumulative effects of a project should be examined along with the direct impacts.

What are indirect and cumulative effects?

Indirect effects are caused by an action and occur later in time or farther removed in distance, but are still reasonably foreseeable.

Cumulative effects are the impact on the environment that results from the action when added to other past, present and reasonably foreseeable future actions, regardless of what agency (federal or nonfederal) or person undertakes such actions.

Below are links to procedures in conducting an ICE analysis, as well as a clear definition of direct impacts and indirect and cumulative effects.

To access this information, please use the following links:


Access materials from the Center for Environmental Excellence at the American Association of State Highway Professionals (AASHTO).


From the Maryland Department of Transportation State Highway Administration (MDOT SHA).